Infrastructures and networks
Argo is an international network of 4,000 profiling floats that measure ocean temperature and salinity in real time, from the surface to 2,000 meters deep. It is the result of a program launched in 2000 by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO and the World Meteorological Organization. It is the first global in-situ real-time ocean observation network, complementary to satellite systems, to observe, understand and forecast the ocean and its role in climate and meteorology.
Argo's current objectives are to consolidate and perpetuate the network over the next 10 to 20 years, particularly for the characterization of climate change and the fundamental role of the ocean. The new phase of Argo at the international scale aims at covering polar zones, technological developments, extension to the deepest depths and the addition of biogeochemical sensors.
The Euro-Argo consortium, created in 2014, organizes the European contribution to the international Argo network, through a role of coordination, purchase and monitoring of European floats (1/4 of the global network). Integrated into the European Roadmap for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), its objective is to optimize, sustain and strengthen the European contribution to the Argo program, to provide a service of excellence to the scientific community and operational oceanography, and to participate in the new extensions planned by the international program.
The Euro-Argo infrastructure is hosted by Ifremer in Plouzané-Brest and has a site in Villefranche-sur-mer (Sorbonne University/CNRS). Nine countries (France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Greece, Poland, Finland) are among the founding members.
Sorbonne University contributes in particular to Euro-Argo via the Equipex NAOS project, which brings together its teams from Villefranche-sur-mer and the LOCEAN laboratory in Paris, alongside Ifremer, the University of Western Brittany and the CNRS. This project has led to the development of the new generation of French Argo floats, in partnership with 2 companies (NKE and CLS), meeting the objectives of reaching greater depths, co-operating in polar zones and integrating biogeochemical measurements, and consolidating French excellence in ocean and climate observation.
Created in 2008, the European Marine Biological Research Centre (EMBRC) is a consortium led by Sorbonne University and hosted on the Pierre and Marie Curie campus in Paris. It federates the main operational research forces in marine biology and ecology at the European level:
• through the networking of knowledge from 24 European marine stations, divided into 9 nodes (France, Italy, Spain, Israel, Belgium, Norway, United Kingdom, Portugal, Greece)
• by proposing a global service offer from these stations for the development of research projects and the transfer of marine biotechnologies: access to state-of-the-art platforms and equipment, access to ecosystems at sea, collection and supply of samples, joint data processing, training network, provision of expertise, etc.
This European structure provides scientific visibility in marine biology, allows for the cross-fertilization of approaches and the generation of projects for economic and social solutions, with the aim of preserving and sustainably using resources. Now a reference in marine biology in Europe, the EMBRC is part of the ESFRI (European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures) roadmap.
The EMBRC has structured common methodologies and protocols and has made it possible to create an international Master's degree in marine biology, in collaboration with 8 universities and 14 research centers.
Sorbonne University leads the French node of EMBRC: the National Centre for Marine Biological Resources (EMBRC-France). This research infrastructure structures the service offer of the three marine stations of Roscoff, Villefranche-sur-mer and Banyuls-sur-mer to provide access to marine biological resources for the research and innovation community in biology, ecology, oceanography and blue bio-economy. These sites provide various means of access to the sea (ships, boats, sailors, divers), aquariums and laboratories supplied with running sea water, analytical platforms and accommodation structures, and interface spaces with companies.
EMBRC-France has the specificity of having access to microbial, animal or plant models, as well as access to genetic resources of certain organisms. EMBRC-France offers access to the following services: marine biological models covering all lines of the tree of life, ex situ experimentation devices for breeding or culture, logistical means for genotyping and phenotyping models (omics, imaging, bioinformatics), genetic resources of certain organisms, digital resources on marine organisms and ecosystems.
European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory (EMSO) is a European network of seafloor and water column observatories with the scientific objective of observing in real time the interaction processes between geosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere.
EMSO aims to provide support in different seas for research on the impact of global warming on the oceans, deep marine ecosystems, tectonic and gravity processes and the monitoring of associated natural hazards. EMSO also enables developments in marine technologies operating under high pressures, with industrial opportunities in cabled infrastructures, connected instruments, data services, monitoring of operations.
Since September 2016, EMSO is a European consortium with 8 members: Italy, France, Ireland, Spain, Romania, Greece, United Kingdom and Portugal. A cooperation of data centers in Brest (Ifremer), Bremen (PANGAEA) and Rome (INGV) allows free and real-time access to data.
The EMSO-France research infrastructure federates and promotes the various French seafloor and water column observatory sites. It is composed on each site of equipment for collecting underwater observation data (sensors, cameras) and transmission to the coast.
EMSO-France is an infrastructure co-supported by Ifremer and the Villefranche-sur-Mer station (Sorbonne-Université/CNRS).
Created in 2016, the Coastal and Litoral Research Infrastructure (ILICO) aims to observe and understand coastal and marine environments and ecosystems in their entirety. Thus, ILICO brings together a set of observation devices for collecting samples and deploying various measuring instruments by federating 8 observation services, known as "elementary networks", which are : COAST HF, CORAIL, DYNALIT, MOOSE, PHYTOBS, ReefTEMPS, SOMLIT and SONEL (and BenthOBS, for which the application for SNO label is in progress).
Long-term monitoring also facilitates the understanding and anticipation of certain large-scale processes and phenomena that can impact coastal and littoral zones (quantification of the impact of certain extreme or intermittent events such as tsunamis or cyclones).
ILICO aims to become a structuring and essential element of the research landscape for the themes it covers, at national and European level. As such, it also leads a network of marine laboratories which ensures transversal scientific reflection and prospective.
Data Terra is an infrastructure dedicated to Earth System observation data, consisting of 4 poles: continental surfaces (THEIA), atmosphere (AERIS), oceans (ODATIS), solid earth (FORMATER). Its objective is to facilitate access to satellite, airborne and in-situ data. Created in 2016, Data Terra is intended for the scientific community and socio-economic actors, in the provision of these multi-source data, products and services via a unified portal.
It brings together 19 infrastructure stakeholder partners, including CNRS (Insu), Ifremer, IRD, SHOM, Sorbonne University and 7 other ESR institutions.
The ODATIS cluster dedicated to the oceans builds on the experience of the SALP spatial data centers and the Coriolis center for in-situ operational oceanography. It federates French data management and oceanography activities and aims to promote and facilitate the use of these observations. ODATIS thus contributes to the understanding of the ocean in its entirety: ocean dynamics and thermodynamics, evolution of its physico-chemical properties, biogeochemical cycles, functioning of marine ecosystems, paleo-oceanography.
The cluster is supported by several data centers and services meeting specifications, including those in situ at the Roscoff and Villefranche-sur-mer marine stations involving Sorbonne University.